Gallbladder – an organ of the digestive system, which performs the function of collecting the bile from the liver and regulate its release to the duodenum, depending on meals. Options are to activate bile digestive enzymes in the gut and emulsifying fats (grinding process large fat droplets into smaller) to facilitate their digestion.

Gallbladder disease are quite diverse in its structure, causes and manifestations. By frequency occupy the 2nd place among the diseases of the liver and biliary tract, and the 3rd place of all diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. With regard to age, they often affects people over 50 years of age, and women are more than men.

Location of a gallbladder:

Where is the gallbladder?

The gallbladder is in the anatomical region of the right hypochondrium – the bottom edge of the right costal arch.

The main causes and mechanisms of disease:

There are such basic groups of causes and mechanisms of these diseases:

Infection – cause inflammation of the gall bladder and cause the development of cholecystitis, these include bacteria – E. coli, staphylococcus, streptococcus, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa;
changes in chemical composition of bile and the ratio of its main components (cholesterol, proteins, bile acids, minerals) – one of the main reasons that the stones are formed in the lumen and developing gallstone disease, variant can be cholesterosis – the accumulation of cholesterol in the walls of the gallbladder;
violation of the innervation of the gallbladder – leads to problems with the reduction of its walls, which is why developing dyskinesia of the gallbladder and its dysfunction (yield bile into the intestine occurs at the wrong time and not in its entirety);
genetic changes hereditary anatomical shape of the gallbladder – they are the cause of such a state, as the bend of the gallbladder;
changes in the genome of the cells of the mucous membrane of the gallbladder leads to the formation of benign (polyps) or malignant (cancer) tumors.

Symptoms of gallbladder disease:

Diseases of the gallbladder and bile ducts appear identical main symptoms regardless of the cause and mechanism of the disease:

Pain – is localized in the area of ​​hypochondria, of varying intensity (less at the bend of the gallbladder, is more pronounced with cholecystitis and stones, polyps may be missing). The pain is worse during the day after eating, especially fatty, fried or smoked. In case of stones from the gallbladder, and blockage of the common bile duct to them there is a sharp paroxysmal pain – hepatic colic.

Symptoms of dyspepsia:

  • In connection with the flow of bile into the intestine incomplete or changing its composition process of digestion is disturbed. Nausea, recurrent vomiting, bloating (swelling) and disorders of the chair (relief or a tendency to constipation).
  • Bitter taste in the mouth – accompanies almost all diseases of the liver and gall bladder.
  • Raspberry language – redness of the language-specific symptom of various problems with the liver and biliary ways.
  • Intense color of urine – urine becomes saturated yellow, until brown. This is due to the fact that the gall bladder bile acid partially absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine, which gives it a characteristic colouration.
  • Bright cal – normally brown chair provided by the presence in it of bile acids, respectively, with a decrease in the flow of bile into the intestine feces become bright.
  • Yellow skin and sclera (from the barely perceptible to severe yellow coloring of the skin and sclera) – occurs by ingestion of bile acids in the blood from the gallbladder and settling them in the tissues of the body (jaundice).
  • These are the basic symptoms of the gall bladder, which can vary in each case. Some of them may not be at, for example, inflammation of the gallbladder mucosa occurs without jaundice.