Drugs for skin diseases
External drugs intended for the treatment of skin diseases:
The effectiveness of therapeutic action of the drug is largely dependent on where in the dosage form is used: in the form of a lotion or compress, paste or ointment and etc.
External drugs most frequently used in the following pharmacological forms: 1) a lotion, 2) compresses, 3) powders, 4) liquid paste (aqueous and oily, 5) of pasta, 6) ointment 7) creams, 8) patches 9) and adhesive 10) soap.
- When assigning the drug substance in one way or another must take into account not only the pharmacological effects, but physical properties of the substrate on which it is prepared. For example, the same drug in the paste and ointment has a different effect on the intensity. The ointments, such as tar in acute inflammation would be annoying, but the paste can have a beneficial effect.
1. Lotions. The use of lotions based on their cooling, vasoconstrictors, anti-inflammatory action. Furthermore, lotions depending on the nature of the medicament employed exhibit astringent, disinfecting and deodorizing action. Due to the cooling effect and lotions have bole- anti-itching effect.
Indications: ostrovospalitelnye processes, accompanied by weeping, feeling the heat and pressure in limited areas of the skin (eczema, dermatitis, atopic dermatitis, and others.).
How to use: several layers of gauze soaked in liquid cooled, designed as a lotion, slightly wring out and put on the affected area for 15 20 minutes, and so repeated several times for 1.5-2 hours. These sessions are repeated at least 3 times a day.
2. The packs used in cases when it is required, warming, soothing and resolving action.
Indications: neostrovospalitelnye limited infiltrative processes (eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and other diseases). Application of poultices for boils, gidradenity, carbuncles contraindicated.
How to use: layers of gauze impregnated with several drug and applied to the affected area; top gauze put oilcloth or waxed paper, cotton wool and then fixed with a bandage. The compress is applied for a few hours, sometimes for days.
Drying wet compresses applied without compress paper and oilcloth. Methods of applying the following: the affected skin salve (preferably cream), then covered with gauze moistened with one of these liquids, secured with a bandage and leave overnight. When dry gauze can be re-wet with the same fluid without removing the bandage. Such wet-drying packs have antipruritic, anti-inflammatory and absorbing effects.
The drugs used in the compression: 40 ° alcohol Ichthyolum et al.
3. Powders. As powders used powdered substance having adsorbing and drying effect.
Indications: common ostrovospalitelnye processes (allergic rashes) and limited ostrovospalitelnye processes, especially in the facial area, while sweating in the folds and in the feet. Especially shows the use of powders in the diaper rash in young children.
4. Liquid paste (mash). The use of liquid pastes based on their cooling, anti-absorbent, dries and antipruritic effect. There are two types of liquid pastes: water and oil. Water paste prescribed for oily skin, oil – in the dry. However, this indication is not always possible to be guided – in practice, have to reckon with the individual characteristics of the patients: some can not tolerate water paste, others – oil.
Indications: common ostrovospalitelnye processes, in particular allergid, accompanied by itching and other discomfort.
Method of application: cotton wool or gauze liquid paste is applied uniformly on the skin. Pre vial of liquid paste is necessary to shake.
In these prescription liquid pastes can be administered any drugs, depending on the evidence. For example, to enhance the cooling and antipruritic actions menthol is added in a 1% concentration; It can be administered as benzocaine (5-10%), tar (2%) and other medications.
5. Paste. The paste contains powders 50% and 50% fat or fat-like substances (petrolatum, lanolin, lard). Pasta is prescribed in cases where the required absorbent and drying effect. Medicinal substances applied to the pastes are poorly absorbed wheel, so their effect in the pastes weaker than in ointments.
Indications with limited eczema, atopic dermatitis, dermatitis and other diseases in cases where the appointment is contraindicated fatty ointments.
How to use: a thin layer of paste is applied on the affected area of skin is better to smear it on a linen napkin soft, lay the napkin on the skin and secure with a bandage.
The paste can be administered to a variety of drugs. substance according to the indication.
6. Ointments. At its core, ointments contain fat (swine, bovine) or fat-like substance (Vaseline). Ointments have a softening effect on the epidermis, loosen the stratum corneum, thus contributing to a better penetration of drugs into the skin. The negative properties of ointments should include their ability to break the skin perspiration. This adversely affects the course ostrovospalitelnyh especially common processes, causing them to relapse. Appointment of ointments in the acute stage of eczema is contraindicated.
Indications: eczema, neurodermatitis and other diseases primarily in the non-acute stage; in some cases, perhaps the appointment of ointments in the subacute stage of inflammation.
Dosing: Ointment continuous thin layer of plaster or in the form of stripes on the affected area of the skin; with limited neostrovospalitelnyh infiltrative processes, it is desirable to prescribe an ointment compress with a view to strengthening their resolving action. Sometimes, such as scabies, it recommended rubbing ointments.
The ointments and pastes can be assigned to a variety of drugs depending on the evidence.
7. Creams. Unlike ointment cream containing more water and fat. Because fats are used in creams lanolin, spermaceti, etc.
Because the water content of the cream has a cooling and, consequently, anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effect. The cream has a soft, delicate texture, so it is well softens the skin. Water mixed with fat in the cream forms a colloidal dispersion, so the cream does not break the skin and perspiration better tolerated than ointments. Especially beneficial for the skin emulsion creams, manufactured at the factory (cosmetic creams).
Indications: Thanks to the content of lanolin in the cream, he indicated for dry skin; Cream prefer ointments in a variety of chronic infiltrative processes that require softening effect; creams are widely used in cosmetics.
Methods of application are the same as in the use of ointments.
The cream can be used instead of vaseline as a base for a variety of drugs.
In allergic diseases (eczema, allergic dermatitis, neurodermatitis), patients can not tolerate petroleum jelly; in such cases it is recommended to use a cream base without petrolatum.
8. patches. This particular form of the therapeutic agent, when the mass of drug substance deposited on special fabric (chiffon) and then applied to the skin. Produce also patches without medication containing only adhesive (adhesive tape). The adhesive patch is intended for fixation of dressings, and is also used in combination with ointments.
Indications: adhesives used in cases where it is necessary deep penetration of drug into the skin, such as limited chronic infiltrative processes (eczema, neurodermatitis limited, chronic forms of psoriasis, discoid lupus erythematosus and form t. P.). Adhesive tape is often used for hermetic sealing of chronic non-healing leg ulcers, boils, etc. nevskryvshihsya. N.
Methods of use: cut off a piece of the necessary size of the patch; slightly warmed and paste on the affected area of the skin.
9. Glue use in medical practice for applying adhesive bandages.
Indications: chronic non-healing leg ulcers are difficult to treat microbial eczema localization in the shins.
Methods of Use: adhesive mass is heated in a water bath and loaded onto pre-dressing of the gauze bandage. After solidification of the adhesive mass turns soft elastic bandage tight to the skin.
10. Soap Medical. Liquid soaps (potassium) is used in combination with drugs in ointments (soft soap). Solid soap (soda) produced in the form of soap that contains a variety of drug substances (tar, sulfur soap, and so on. N.).